This is a recent review article about the use of biomarkers in multiple sclerosis diagnostic and follow-up via AutoImmunity Reviews.
Multiple sclerosis is the most common autoimmune disorder affecting the central nervous system. The heterogeneity of pathophysiological processes in MS contributes to the highly variable course of the disease and unpredictable response to therapies. The major focus of the research on MS is the identification of biomarkers in biological fluids, such as cerebrospinal fluid or blood, to guide patient management reliably. Because of the difficulties in obtaining spinal fluid samples and the necessity for lumbar puncture to make a diagnosis has reduced, the research of blood-based biomarkers may provide increasingly important tools for clinical practice. However, currently there are no clearly established MS blood-based biomarkers. The availability of reliable biomarkers could radically alter the management of MS at critical phases of the disease spectrum, allowing for intervention strategies that may prevent evolution to long-term neurological disability. This article provides an overview of this research field and focuses on recent advances in blood-based biomarker research.