Anti-SPAG16 antibodies in primary progressive multiple sclerosis are associated with an elevated progression index

Background and purpose

Sperm-associated antigen 16 (SPAG16), a sperm protein which is upregulated in reactive astrocytes in multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions, has recently been identified as a novel autoantibody target in MS. The aim of this study was to investigate whether anti-SPAG16 antibody levels differ between MS subtypes (relapsing−remitting, RR; primary or secondary progressive, PP, SP) and whether antibody positivity is associated with clinical characteristics.

Methods

Plasma anti-SPAG16 antibody levels were determined by recombinant protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 374 MS patients (274 RRMS, 39 SPMS and 61 PPMS) and 106 healthy controls.

Results

Significantly elevated anti-SPAG16 antibodies were found in 22% of MS patients with 93% specificity. Anti-SPAG16 seropositivity was associated with an increased Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) in overall MS. A higher proportion of PPMS patients showed anti-SPAG16 antibody reactivity (34%) compared to RRMS (19%) and SPMS (26%), and presented with higher anti-SPAG16 antibody levels. Seropositive PPMS patients had a significantly increased progression index compared to seronegative patients.

Conclusions

Anti-SPAG16 antibodies are associated with an increased EDSS in overall MS, indicating that they are linked to a worse MS disease outcome. Moreover, the presence of anti-SPAG16 antibodies may be a biomarker for a more severe disease in PPMS patients, as indicated by an increased progression index.

via Eur J Neurol

Optimizing treatment success in multiple sclerosis

Despite important advances in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) over recent years, the introduction of several disease-modifying therapies (DMTs), the burden of progressive disability and premature mortality associated with the condition remains substantial. This burden, together with the high healthcare and societal costs associated with MS, creates a compelling case for early treatment optimization with highly efficacious therapies. Often, patients receive several first-line therapies, while more recent and in part more effective treatments are still being introduced only after these have failed. However, with the availability of highly efficacious therapies, a novel treatment strategy has emerged, where the aim is to achieve no evidence of disease activity (NEDA). Achieving NEDA necessitates regular monitoring of relapses, disability and functionality. However, there is only a poor correlation between conventional magnetic resonance imaging measures like T2 hyperintense lesion burden and the level of clinical disability. Hence, MRI-based measures of brain atrophy have emerged in recent years potentially reflecting the magnitude of MS-related neuroaxonal damage. Currently available DMTs differ markedly in their effects on brain atrophy: some, such as fingolimod, have been shown to significantly slow brain volume loss, compared to placebo, whereas others have shown either no, inconsistent, or delayed effects. In addition to regular monitoring, treatment optimization also requires early intervention with efficacious therapies, because accumulating evidence shows that effective intervention during a limited period early in the course of MS is critical for maintaining neurological function and preventing subsequent disability. Together, the advent of new MS therapies and evolving management strategies offer exciting new opportunities to optimize treatment outcomes.

via Springer.

Harnessing smartphone technologies for stroke care, rehabilitation and beyond

An interesting, open access article about the use of smartphones technologies for stroke management… via BMJ Innov

Mobile health and medical apps weekly is out!

Read our newspaper about mobile health and medical applications!

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The Neuroscience weekly is out!

Read our neurology weekly newspaper!

via The Neurology and Neuroscience Weekly.

Development and evaluation of a new telerehabilitation system based on VR technology using multisensory feedback for patients with stroke

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to develop a new telerehabilitation system based on VR technology for training of paralyzed upper and lower extremities and poor balance in patients with stroke. Moreover, the effectiveness of the system was verified by analysis of the recovery of these patients.

[Subjects] Five healthy persons and five people with motor paralysis, caused by cerebrovascular disease, participated. [Methods] The features of our system are as follows: (1) Our system can train upper and lower limbs and balancing with 3D images. (2) A Kinect® is used for user posture detection. (3) A vibrator is used for feedback to a sensory receptor in order to promote the learning effect of motion. Upper limb and balance training were conducted in this study.

[Results] The time necessary for the upper limb and balance training tasks was shortened for the participants with disabilities. The joint angle for the participants with disabilities tended to equate to that of the healthy participants over time. Moreover, our system had no side effects.

[Conclusion] These points suggest that our system is effective and safe. The user interface and assessment of the conditions of patients from a distance should be studied in the future.

via J Phys Ther Sci

Cognitive rehabilitation in multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled trial

Background

The evidence base in cognitive rehabilitation in multiple sclerosis (MS) is still sparse.

Objective

The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of cognitive rehabilitation on cognitive and executive coping, psychological well-being and psychological aspects of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with MS.

Methods

One hundred and twenty patients with cognitive complaints, taking part in a 4-week multidisciplinary rehabilitation, were randomized to an intervention group (n = 60) and a control group (n = 60). Both groups underwent neuropsychological assessment with subsequent feedback and took part in general multidisciplinary MS rehabilitation. Additionally, the intervention group participated in cognitive group sessions as well as individual sessions. The main focus was to formulate Goal Attainment Scaling goals for coping with cognitive challenges. For 3 months past rehabilitation, the intervention group received biweekly telephone follow-up, focusing on goal attainment.

Results

Executive functioning improved significantly from baseline to four and 7 months in both groups. Improvements in psychological well-being and psychological aspects of HRQoL occurred only in the intervention group.

Conclusion

Multicomponent cognitive rehabilitation administered within the context of multidisciplinary rehabilitation can improve psychological well-being and psychological aspects of HRQoL.

 

via Acta Neurologica Scandinavica – Wiley Online Library.